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By Finn B. Jensen, William A. Kuperman, Michael B. Porter, Henrik Schmidt

Since the mid-1970s, the pc has performed an more and more pivotal position within the box of ocean acoustics. speedier and cheaper than real ocean experiments, and able to accommodating the complete complexity of the acoustic challenge, numerical types at the moment are normal study instruments in ocean laboratories.

The development made in computational ocean acoustics over the past thirty years is summed up during this authoritative and innovatively illustrated new textual content. Written via many of the field's pioneers, all Fellows of the Acoustical Society of the US, Computational Ocean Acoustics provides the most recent numerical options for fixing the wave equation in heterogeneous fluid–solid media. The authors talk about a variety of computational schemes intimately, emphasizing the significance of theoretical foundations that lead on to numerical implementations for genuine ocean environments. To additional make clear the presentation, the elemental propagation positive aspects of the innovations are illustrated in color.

Computational Ocean Acoustics conveys the state of the art of numerical modeling innovations for graduate and undergraduate scholars of acoustics, geology and geophysics, utilized arithmetic, and ocean engineering. it's also a necessary addition to the libraries of ocean study associations that use propagation models.

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Example text

For the lossy (more realistic) bottom with complex sound speeds, we never get perfect reflection, as discussed earlier. However, the reflection loss for subcritical incidence is still much smaller than for supercritical incidence. With paths involving many bottom bounces such as in shallow-water propagation, bottom losses even as c (z) Surface c1 2 θc θ θc : Discrete spectrum θ θc : Continuous spectrum Bottom c2 Fig. 22 Long-distance propagation in ocean waveguides occurs within an aperture of 2Âc .

C2 > c1 with with 2 c2 2 c2 > < 1 c1 . 1 c1 . While the first situation (low-speed, high-density sediment) is not uncommon for muddy bottoms, the second situation (high-speed, low-density sediment) never occurs in ocean acoustics. The critical-angle concept outlined earlier is very important for understanding the waveguide nature of ocean acoustic propagation, particularly in shallow water. Consider a homogeneous water column with sound speed c1 overlying a homogeneous fluid bottom with speed c2 > c1 , as shown in Fig.

To illustrate some of the characteristics of CZ propagation, we turn to the example given in Fig. 10. The upper graph shows a typical double-duct profile from the eastern North Atlantic resulting from the mixing of resident Atlantic water with Mediterranean outflow through the Strait of Gibraltar. For a source at 20-m depth, we have traced the convergence-zone rays which emanate from the source within an aperture of ˙10ı (steeper rays are reflected at the bottom). A necessary condition 22 1 Fundamentals of Ocean Acoustics for the existence of deep refracted paths in the ocean is that the sound speed near the bottom exceeds that at the source.

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