Download Concepts of Epidemiology: An integrated introduction to the by Raj Bhopal PDF

By Raj Bhopal

Epidemiology matters the frequency, trend, and reasons of ailment in populations. it truly is some of the most vital sleek sciences underpinning overall healthiness and healthcare- together with drugs, public well-being and occupation allied to drugs. ideas in Epidemiology explains and illustrates the foremost concepts(language, rules and techniques) that underpin the technological know-how of epidemiology and its purposes to coverage making, healthiness provider making plans and health and wellbeing advertising. Richly illustrated, there are workouts to aid readers deepen their figuring out, with detrailed fabric captured in tables. each one bankruptcy results in a precis, and all technical and really good terminology is defined and outlined in a word list. The booklet locations heavy emphasis on integrating the information of epidemiology. subject matters comprise: the character and scope of epidemiology; the epidemiological thoughts of inhabitants; edition in sickness by means of time, position and individual: mistakes, bias, threat amendment and confounding; reason and impact: the innovations of normal historical past, spectrum, iceberg, inhabitants styles and screening; danger and measures of disorder frequency; presentation and interpretation of epidemiological facts on chance; research layout; and theoretical, moral, contextual, useful and significant foundations of epidemiology.

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Additional resources for Concepts of Epidemiology: An integrated introduction to the ideas, theories, principles and methods of epidemiology

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Chapter 1 What is epidemiology? The nature and scope of a biological, social, and ecological science and of epidemiological variables and outcomes Objectives After reading this chapter you should understand: ◆ that the prime focus of epidemiology is on the pattern of disease and ill-health in the population; ◆ that epidemiology combines elements of clinical, biological, social and ecological sciences; ◆ that epidemiology is dependent on clinical practice and the clinical sciences to make a diagnosis, the starting point of epidemiological work; ◆ that the central goal of epidemiology as a science is to understand the causes of disease variation and use this knowledge to better the health of populations and individuals; ◆ that the central goal of epidemiology as a practice is preventing and controlling disease in populations, guiding health and healthcare policy and planning, and improving health care in individuals; ◆ that good epidemiological variables should meet the purposes of epidemiology; ◆ that epidemiology is based on theories though these may not be made explicit.

No epidemiological study can be done on one person, but other medical sciences such as pathology and physiology may gain much from the detailed study of one person, or even parts of a person. Even therapeutic trials can be designed for one individual thus advancing clinical knowledge. To compare and contrast disease status and disease pattern, the basis of epidemiology, you need at least two individuals. While epidemiology may be on very large groups—sometimes millions of people but nearly always hundreds or thousands—it can be done on very small groups.

A variable is anything which varies and has different values. Clearly, this applies to most phenomena, but only a few are chosen for epidemiological analysis. Variation in disease pattern is the foundation of epidemiology, but in epidemiology the word variable is less often applied to diseases, which may be referred to as outcome variables or simply outcomes, but to factors which help to describe and understand disease pattern. These are also called exposure variables. Epidemiological variables aid in the depiction, analysis, and interpretation of difference in disease patterns within and between populations.

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