By Volnei A. Pedroni
This ebook deals a pleasant presentation of the elemental rules and practices of recent electronic layout. not like the other e-book during this box, transistor-level implementations also are integrated, which permit the readers to achieve a high-quality knowing of a circuit's genuine capability and barriers, and to enhance a pragmatic standpoint at the functional layout of tangible built-in circuits. assurance comprises the most important choice on hand of electronic circuits in all different types (combinational, sequential, logical, or arithmetic). insurance additionally contains specified electronic layout recommendations, with an intensive dialogue on state-machine modeling for the research and layout of advanced sequential structures. Key applied sciences utilized in glossy circuits also are defined, together with Bipolar, MOS, ROM/RAM, and CPLD/FPGA chips, in addition to codes and strategies utilized in information garage and transmission. Designs are illustrated by way of whole, life like functions utilizing VHDL, the place the total code, reviews and simulation effects are integrated.
* complete assurance of basic electronic options and ideas, in addition to entire, life like, industry-standard designs
* Many circuits proven with inner info on the transistor-level, as in actual built-in circuits
* real applied sciences utilized in state of the art electronic circuits awarded at the side of basic thoughts and ideas
* Six chapters devoted to VHDL-based concepts, with all VHDL-based designs synthesized onto CPLD/FPGA chips
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Additional info for Digital Electronics and Design with VHDL
5 # of bits 0 1 Binary code Hexa code 0 BCD code 0 0000 9 4 1001 9 1001 99 7 1100011 63 1001 1001 999 10 1111100111 3E7 1001 1001 1001 ■ Codes for Negative Numbers There are several codes for representing negative numbers. The best known are sign-magnitude, one’s complement, and two’s complement. However, the hardware required to perform arithmetic operations with these numbers is simpler when using two’s complement, so in practice this is basically the only one used for integers. 1 Sign-Magnitude Code In this case, the MSB represents the sign ('0' = plus, '1' = minus).
3 Gray Code Another popular code is the Gray code (common in mechanical applications). It is a UDC (unit-distance code) because any two adjacent codewords differ by just one bit. Moreover, it is an MSB reflected code because the codewords are reflected with respect to the central words and differ only in the MSB position. To construct this code, we start with zero and then simply flip the rightmost bit that produces a new codeword. Two examples are given below, where 2- and 3-bit Gray codes are constructed.
Typical values for these parameters will be presented in the next section, but briefly speaking they go from 5 V (old BJT- and MOS-based chips) down to 1 V (newest MOS-based chips). However, the supply voltage is not the only factor that affects the power consumption; another fundamental factor is the dynamic current (that is, the current that depends on the speed at which the circuit is operating), which is particularly important in MOS-based circuits. For any digital architecture to be of practical interest, it must be “integrateable”; that is, it must allow the construction of very dense (millions of gates) ICs with adequate electrical parameters, manageable power consumption, and reasonable cost.