By Romain Pauwels, Dirkje S. Postma, Scott T. Weiss
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Additional info for Lung Biology in Health & Disease Volume 191 Long-Term Intervention in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
32. ) Year reported Place Age (yr) n 40–64 1569 United Kingdom (33) United States (9) Sweden (34) Japan (35) 1961 National Survey 1962 1968 1977 India (36) (37) Africa (38) (16) Nepal (28) 1977 1977 1977 1978 1984 Berlin, NH 25–74 1139 Uppsala 30–64 41679 Summary of 50–59 22590 Several Surveys Delhi 35–74 300 Madras 50–60þ 523 Nigeria 31–70þ 1544 Zimbabwe > 20 4994 Hill Region ! 9 Chronic bronchitis deﬁned as phlegm for days/week, 3 months/yr for 3 years or more. Source: Adapted from Ref. 28. 24 Buist very low prevalences in two African countries (Nigeria and Zimbabwe), Sweden, and South India.
Myers JL, Colby TV. Pathological manifestations of bronchiolitis, constrictive bronchiolitis, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia and diﬀuse panbronchiolitis. Clin Chest Med 1993; 14:611–622. Mannino DM, Gagnon RC, Petty TL, Lydick E. Obstructive lung disease and low lung function in adults in the United States: data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988–1994. Arch Intern Med 2000; 160:1683–1689. 2 COPD: Worldwide Prevalence A. A. Imprecise and variable deﬁnitions have made it hard to quantify the prevalence and burden of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in both developed and developing countries (1).
To derive this, methodology was developed to ﬁll in the gaps where no data existed. In order to calculate YLD, the incidence, average age of onset, duration, and disability severity weight need to be known. This requires, therefore, that incidence and prevalence data be identiﬁed or estimated. Since valid population-based epidemiological studies do not exist for many nonfatal health outcomes in many regions, a methodology based on an iterative process was developed. The ﬁrst step was to identify and convene disease experts from a number of international agencies and many countries.