By Jonathan Dancy
This quantity is outfitted at the papers given on the 1998 Ratio convention on normativity. It comprises papers by means of John Broome, Christopher Hookway, Frank Jackson, Peter Railton, Joseph Raz and JohnSkorupski.
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Additional info for Normativity (Ratio Special Issues)
The only possible object of knowledge is a categorized intuition, and this object is something which we have 22 On Scientific Representations already delimited by means of our conceptual structure. In conclusion, Kant does not close the bottom of the Porphyry-tree with individuals, as Aristotle and the medievals did – even if he takes this possibility into account – but only for pragmatic purposes and as a temporary assumption. 3 Cassirer: from class-concept to function-concept According to Cassirer, it is mathematics that points out the problems of the class-concept theory.
Cassirer, 1910, p. 26) [Thus] if we wish to conceive of the concept itself, we must not attempt to clutch it like an object. (Cassirer, 1923–29, Vol. 3, p. 299; compare also pp. 315–16) Therefore, by accepting that the nature of the concept is formal and functional and that the concept is distinct from the object, Cassirer reaches two results: (1) he dissolves the problem of universals (that is, the concept can be seen neither as a real entity, nor as a flatus vocis); (2) he dissolves the classical dichotomy particular–universal.
Naturally, each concept which is neither highest genus, nor lowest species can be both a genus (as far as the subsumed species are concerned), and a species (as far as the genera under which it is subsumed are concerned). The only aspect of the Porphyryan structure that Kant does not accept is that it has an end, at its bottom. According to Kant, even if we could reach a concept which could be applied directly to an individual thing, we could always add some further logical determinations to it, and so a new concept subsumed under it would be found.