By Robert Rosen
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First, there are some generalities about the form and structure of mammalian erythrocytes. The human erythrocyte, which may be regarded as typical, is basically a circular disc, with a diameter ofapproximately 8 x 10-4 cm, and a thickness of2 x 10-4 cm. The two faces of the disc are not planar, but are closer to each other in the centre than at the edges of the erythrocyte, giving the cell its characteristic biconcave form. Erythrocytes are present in enormous numbers in the blood stream, there normally being between 4,000,000 and 6,000,000 cells in each cubic millimeter of blood.
If not, can you explain the discrepancy? 1). 4). 17). There is, however, one 52 OPTIMALITY PRINCIPLES IN BIOLOGY special ease of interest, whieh deserves explieit mention. Suppose that the original vessel bifureates into two vessels of equal radius; Le. n = r2. 21) This is the result obtained by Cohn7, using what seems at first sight to be a quite different argument. However, the interested reader may verify that the cost funetional involved in Cohn's eomputation is equivalent to the one used above.
Weinstock, McGraw-HilI, New York,1952. 40 OPTIMALITY PRINCIPLES IN BIOLOGY 8. This form for the functional J(y) emerged very early from a study of the classical problems of the calculus of variations. It seems at first sight to be of a very special nature, but in reality, such an integral representation is possible for arbitrary functionals under very general conditions. 1 Introduction THE vascular system is the name given to the system of arteries, capillaries, and veins which carries blood from the heart to all parts of the body and back again.