By Allen Louis Edwards
Allen Edwards investigates the interrelationship of perspective and character.
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Extra resources for The social desirability variable in personality assessment and research (The Dryden Press publications in psychology)
This is permissible behavior and evokes sympathy rather than censure from others. But it is not required by custom. In certain other societies, on the other hand, crying is not merely tolerated but required at certain moments. At other times it is strictly forbidden, when weeping and wailing and tears can be seen to stop as soon as they started. Such ceremonial or ritual crying has been the subject of much anthropological investigation. While psychologists, due to the absence of further evidence, might tend to discount such information as irrelevant to the emotion of grief, such analyses have been central to anthropology.
1950, p. 463) Since facial and other outward expressions of emotions are frequently affected by social norms, the assumption that voluntary control of facial expressions can shape the emotional experience suggests one mechanism by which cultural norms can influence emotional experience. Most of the critics of the proprioceptive-feedback theory completely disregarded James's discussion of the role of facial expression in emotion. Thus, Cannon's (1929) devastating attack on the James-Lange theory is exclusively aimed at disproving the role of feedback from viscera and the autonomous nervous system.
Right into her old age, "every bed in which Victoria slept had attached to it, at the back, on the right hand side, above the pillow, a photograph of the head and shoulders of Albert as he lay dead, surmounted by a wreath of immortelles" (Strachey, 1971, p. 234). While during her lifetime Queen Victoria came to be considered the model of widowed virtue, whose example was to be copied, to us today she presents a paradigm of the chronically, abnormally, grief-stricken. Delayed grief, which was already described by Lindemann (1944), takes place when a normal or chronic grief reaction occurs only after an extensive delay, during which the expression of grief is inhibited.